A pledge by officials to boost defence ties at a high-level security forum would come on top of a 55 per cent jump in five-year arms sales by China to Africa
PUBLISHED : Sunday, 08 July, 2018, 10:32am
UPDATED : Sunday, 08 July, 2018, 10:32am
When defence officials from China and the African nations on Tuesday wrap up a high-level security forum, both sides are expected to vow to enhance defence relations, boosting a bond between the two parties that already includes surging Chinese arms sales to Africa.
China’s participation in peace keeping missions and its setting up of a military base in Djibouti, on the Horn of Africa, have strengthened defence ties built on top of the increasingly strong economic relationship China has been developing with Africa since the turn of the millennium.
Some one million Chinese citizens today live in Africa while 200,000 Africans work in China.
From 2013 to 2017, China’s arms exports to Africa surged 55 per cent from the previous five-year period of 2008 to 2012, according to Stockholm International Peace Research Institute.
While Africa’s overall arms imports decreased 22 per cent over the same period, China’s share of total African arms imports rose 8.6 per cent to 17 per cent.
Meanwhile, Russian arms exports to Africa fell by 32 per cent, accounting for 39 per cent of total imports to the region. The US accounted for 11 per cent of arms exports to Africa.
As defence relations between the parties strengthen, here is a look at the weapons China sells to Africa.
Battle Tanks/Armored Vehicles
China exported 24 battle tanks to Tanzania and 30 to Chad in 2013, according to the latest available data from the United Nation Register of Conventional Arms (UNROCA).
China exports a few home-designed model battle tanks overseas. Its main model, the VT4 battle tank, is a third-generation vehicle built by for overseas export by state-owned arms maker China North Industries Group, officially abbreviated as Norinco.
The VT4 has a 125 millimetre smoothbore cannon capable of firing guided missiles. A remote weapon station on the turret is armed with a 12.7mm heavy machine gun.
Last year, Norinco expanded its line of tanks for the overseas market by developing the GL-5 armoured vehicle. The GL-5 system includes four radar systems and fixed projectile launchers attached to a tank turret for 360-degree coverage.
Armoured combat vehicles also are one of China’s top weapons exports to African countries, with Ghana and Namibia importing 76 and 21, respectively, in 2009 and Kenya importing 32 in 2007. Rwanda, Burundi, Mozambique, Chad and Gabon also have bought armoured combat vehicles from China.
The ST1 8×8 wheeled tank destroyer is another of China’s armoured vehicles for export. It boasts one Nato standard 105mm rifled gun that fires a full range of ammunition.
Combat Aircraft/ Drone
Combat aircraft and drones also are among China’s major arms export items.
Nigeria, Tanzania, Zambia, Bolivia, Namibia, Zimbabwe and Ghana all have been buyers of China-built combat aircraft, drone combat aircraft or drones, according to the latest UNROCA data.
JF-17 Thunder is China’s major jet in its export market. The single-engined jet was developed jointly by the Pakistan Aeronautical Complex and the Chengdu Aircraft Corporation of China.
It can deploy air-to-air and air-to-surface missiles, powered either by a Guizhou WS-13 or Klimov RD-93 afterburning turbofan, with a top speed of Mach 1.6.
Meanwhile, China has banned the export of its J-20 stealth fighter to the global market.
It is unclear how many unmanned combat aerial vehicles China actually has exported overseas, but what is certain is it wants to export more drones to dominate the market.
As a result of US drone export policy requiring all drone exports to go through a strict government approval process, Saudi Arabia and Jordan, among others, have turned to China to build their drone fleets.
Morocco, Sudan and Yemen have imported missiles and missile launchers from China, according to UNROCA.
Chinese arms reportedly have been used during conflicts in Congo and Sudan. In July 2014, Norinco delivered 100 guided missile systems to South Sudan.
The Red Arrow 9 anti-tank missile system and GP6 155mm laser-homing artillery weapon systems are Norinco’s major exports.
The Red Arrow is an advanced, third-generation anti-tank missile system deployed by the People’s Liberation Army. It has a maximum range of 5.5km with an armour penetration of 1,200mm.
The GP6 laser-homing artillery weapon system is designed to engage tanks and be used in infantry fighting. It is capable of destroying targets within a range of six to 25 kilometres.
Congo, Ghana, Sudan, Cameroon, Tanzania, Niger and Rwanda have imported calibre artillery systems from China.
US, France and Britain freeze sale of Chinese weaponry to Central African Republic
The requested purchase of armoured vehicles, rockets and anti-aircraft guns from China Poly is supported by UN peacekeepers – but has raised concerns among the three Western members of the Security Council
PUBLISHED : Friday, 15 June, 2018, 1:57pm
UPDATED : Friday, 15 June, 2018, 1:57pm
France, Britain and the United States on Thursday put on hold a request from the Central African Republic for UN Security Council approval of Chinese weapons deliveries for its national forces.
CAR’s defence minister asked a UN sanctions committee on June 5 to grant an exemption to an arms embargo and allow the shipments of Chinese-made armoured vehicles, machine guns, tear gas grenades and other weaponry for its army and police.
France said it had “concerns concerning some lethal equipment included in this exemption request,” citing anti-aircraft weapons and ammunitions, according to a document obtained by Agence France-Presse.
The French mission to the United Nations requested “additional justifications concerning this lethal equipment to be able to take a decision.”
The United States noted that there was “no threat of an air attack in CAR” and questioned deliveries of eight grenade launchers, four anti-aircraft machine guns as well as anti-personnel grenades and rockets.
Britain said it was concerned that the shipments would pass through Cameroon unescorted to the border with CAR.
In her request to the United Nations, CAR Defence Minister Marie Noelle Koyara said the weaponry would help strengthen national forces who are “confronted with the strength and escalating violence of armed groups whose illegal activities pose a threat to civil order.”
The council imposed an arms embargo on the Central African Republic in 2013 when the country descended into bloodshed but its sanctions committee last year gave the green light for Russia to supply weapons to the national forces.
China wants to donate military equipment which includes 12 armoured vehicles and four assault vehicles, 50 pistols, six sniper rifles, 10 submachine guns with silencers and some 30 machine guns of various calibres.
The list of equipment from China’s Poly Technologies also includes 300 rockets, 500 anti-tank grenades, some 725,000 rounds of ammunition of various types and 15,000 tear gas grenades.
The request for the Chinese weaponry is backed by a European Union military training mission and by the UN peacekeeping operation MINUSCA, which has come under repeated attacks from armed groups. Five peacekeepers have been killed this year.
In its note detailing objections, the US mission to the United Nations argued that special training was needed to operate the grenade launchers “which we are not certain has been provided.”
Most of the armoured vehicles and other weaponry would be used by special forces trained by Rwanda and certified by the EU training mission. Units of CAR’s gendarmerie and police were trained by the United Nations police.
In her request, the defence minister argued that tear gas would help gendarmerie and police deal with crowd control as the “units do not currently possess any of this equipment designed to maintain order.”
The Central African Republic exploded into violence following the 2013 overthrow of long-time leader Francois Bozize, prompting France to intervene with its Operation Sangaris.
MINUSCA took over an African Union-led mission in 2014, deploying some 12,000 troops and police, but the country remains overrun with militias, many of whom claim to protect Christian or Muslim communities.
CAR’s leaders have repeatedly asked the Security Council to ease the arms embargo to allow shipments of equipment that will strengthen the national forces.